Optimising the Learning in Teamwork
From a socioconstructive perspective of learning, the authors of this article examine the question of teamwork as a pedagogical tool. To do this, they distinguish between the cooperative approach and the collaborative approach and specify the advantages and limitations of each. With the cooperative approach, each student in the team is responsible for becoming an ‘‘expert’’ on one aspect of the task, following which the team members assemble their respective results. The collaborative approach requires a close collaboration from all team members, where each one plays a complementary role and everyone has one common objective. The authors propose a plural approach that alternates between these two approaches: negotiation and mediation with students as regards work to be completed and methods used; realization of the work using cooperation and a review of the completed work by each team member. In terms of evaluation, the reflection focuses on the learning (individual and collective) and the methodology used; it is carried out on an individual level, in teams and in the class-group. In doing so, the combination of several teamwork experiences added to the reflective reviews of these experiences allow students to develop methodological competencies.
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